We will discuss here about the structure of a simple fruit. Mango is a very common simple fruit. It is the national fruit of India. Now we will study about the general features of a mango fruit.
(i) Epicarp: The outer skin of mango is thin and leathery. It looks green when this fruit is young. As it grows ripe the skin becomes yellow or orange in colour. This skin is called epicarp.
(ii) Mesocarp: Under the outer skin there is a thick pulpy layer. This is the edible portion of mango. This layer is known as mesocarp.
(iii) Endocarp: Below this pulpy mesocarp layer there is a woody hard layer, called endocarp. This layer remains just over the seed. It develops numerous hairy outgrowths, which have access into the mesocarp.
(iv) Seed: Mango has a single seed, which is large in size. It is elongated and laterally compressed in shape. Mango seed has two flat thick cotyledons, which remain covered with a thin papery seed-coat. Developed from a fertilized ovule, the seed is a structure from which new plant grows.