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Process of photosynthesis- Photosynthesis is the only process by which energy from the sun called solar energy is trapped inside the body of living beings specifically green plants. It contains chlorophyll which is the green pigment and is able to trap sunlight
Photo respiration was first described by the Dicker and Tio in 1959. This photorespiration is also known as C2 cycle or oxidative photosynthetic carbon cycle. This is the process that are observed in some higher plants where Rubisco oxygenates RuBp that causes energy
C4 plants are those plants where carbon dioxide are circulated into four carbon compound (sugar) before entering the Calvin cycle. There are many C4 plants that we take in our diet ,they are – maize, pineapple, sugarcane etc.
The dark reaction, primary involves assimilation of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to organic carbon of the plant body in the form of organic compounds like glucose this thing was first denoted by Blackmans in 1905 and hence it is called black man’s reaction later in
The increase in carbon dioxide concentration in the environment may increase photosynthesis by up to a certain limit is 1% and higher concentration of carbon dioxide is inhibitory for photosynthetic reaction. At the point where the concentration of carbon dioxide and that
ATP and ADP are energy molecules Which produced during light reaction and that is utilised in the dark reaction bye release of energy. Production of ATP and ADP during light reaction Uses of ATP and NADPH- ATP and NADPH ( Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) are have
Chemiosmotic theory- Piter D. Mitchell proposed the chemiosmotic hypothesis in 1961 and this theory suggest essentiality that most adenosine triphosphate phosphate (ATP) cells comes from the electrochemical gradient across the inner membrane of mitochondriaby using energy
Photosynthesis is called Redox reaction because carbon dioxide is reduced to glucose and water is oxidised to oxygen. It is a weakly fluorescent pigment system consisting of chlorophyll B ,chlorophyll A of 670, chlorophyll A 680 chlorophyll A 695 and very small amount of
Water is very essential and important component of photosynthesis which helps in the reduction of carbon dioxide to glucose. Theterrestrial plants that absorb the soil water with the help of their root hairs by the process of osmosis and active transport, the aquatic plants
It is called ETC. Electron transfer means the process where one electron relocate from one atom to the other atom. Definition of electron transport chain - The biological process where a chains of redox reaction take place as electrons are transferred from the donner to the
Light reaction is also known as photochemical phase because for this phase light is essential for green plants get from sunlight. This phase is observed in the granum of chloroplast and is essential inductive phase which involve absorption of solar energy, photosynthetic
Pigments are the molecules that absorbs light of specific wavelengths release the other means absorbs energy and provide that for transformation of electrons into next level.
Photosynthesis is a physiological process in which green plants make their own food in presence of sunlight, water collected by the roots, carbon dioxide from the air and produces oxygen which is released into the air.
Metabolism of Nitrogen nitrogen cycle biological nitrogen fixation- We all know that our atmosphere has 78% of the Nitrogen gas which is one of the essential constituent of all living organisms. Nitrogen cycle is a type of biogeochemical cycle, this term was first coined by
It is accepted that soil is very much essential for the plants to grow. Soil is made up of three layers. Among the three layers topsoil is the most enriched layer of the soil. In this layer plants grow. This layer contains all the critical elements
Translocation is a process by which transport of food materials from the source or point of manufacture two different growing regions of the plant take place. As we all know that water is transported by the roots and the food produced in the leaves are must be transported
Roots absorb water in the region where root hairs are present. Root hairs are tubular in structure that outgrowth of a root region which passes into soil interfaces for absorption water from the soil. Root hairs developed in the region of the root maturation and this area is
Deficiency in plants can be caused due to following deficiency of the elements- Nitrogen- As nitrogen is the major constituent of amino acids, proteins, hormones, enzymes, coenzymes, chlorophyll, vitamin, cytochromes etc thus chlorosis appear first in older leaves and
Micronutrients consists of those element which are required very less in quantity for the normal growth and development of the plants. Different types of micronutrients in plants are- Different types of micronutrients of the plants are – zinc, boron, chlorine, manganese
Terrestrial plants absorb the mineral requirements from the soil by the region of their roots that having young cells. The process of absorption of minerals can be passive or active. In passive transport of energy is not required by the transport system but in the active
Plants that uses different mineral and water for their nutrition is called plant nutrition. Weathering of rock mixing of dead bodies of plants and animals with the soil make the soil fertile and there is addition of different elements within the soil from the body of the
Elements that require by the plants are called essential minerals. Functions of minerals- functions of minerals are- *Constituent of organic molecules that is carbon hydrogen oxygen nitrogen phosphorus Sulphur Ion magnesium calcium
It is the hypothesis by which transport of sap by phloem can be best described. This hypothesis was given by Ernst Munch in 1930 who was an German plant physiologist. According to this hypothesis a high concentration of organic substances like sugar, inside the phloem
Transport of phloem saps from the sugar source to the sugar sink takes place. For the plants specifically angiosperms are observed to having pressure flow hypothesis for their phloem translocation.
The transport of substances from one part of the plant to the another part is called conduction. In this process water is transported to the Green Leaves for photosynthesis, takes place and the food produced in the leaves are transported to different parts of the plant.
Photosynthesis is a biochemical process by which green plants make their own food in presence of water, carbon dioxide, sunlight is called photosynthesis. This is the process where chemical energy is stored in the glucose and later it is released as energy for performing
Definition of transpiration - Transpiration is the physiological activity in which water molecules carried from the root to the pores of the leaves present in the downward side of the leaf and evaporates from the plant body. Actually this is the process of evaporation of
Transport of water and minerals- The transport of the substances from one part of the plant to another is called conduction. Roots absorbed water and minerals from the soil those are need to be transported to the different parts of the plants body.
As we all know that water is very essential elements for the plants because it acts as an essential raw material for the photosynthesis of plants for their growth and survival of plants need water to carry out many life processes, physiological processes
This is a physical phenomenon of net flow of solvent molecules from a solution of lower concentration to a solution of higher concentration through a semi permeable membrane (a membrane which allows only the solvent molecules and not the solute molecules
Transport or conduction of the water means transport of substances from one part of plant to the another means transport of water and dissolved minerals from the roots to the leaves via xylem. Roots the underground parts of the plants which is positive geotrophic in nature.
There are different mechanisms for the transport like diffusion, Osmosis, active transport, facilitated diffusion etc. Mainly we can divide the entire transport process into two those are- active transport and passive transport. Passive transport includes diffusion osmosis
Meiosis is a complex cell division process in which the diploid number of chromosome of the mother cell is reduced to haploid number of chromosomes in the four daughter cell.
Meiosis is a complex type of cell division where a number of chromosome of the mother cell is reduced to the haploid number of chromosome in daughter cell.
First meiotic division- Process of meiosis is start with the interphase like that of mitosis and DNA duplication takes place at the premeiotic “S” phase. The first meiotic division consists of prophase 1, pro metaphase1, metaphase 1, anaphase 1, telophase 1.
Meiosis cell division is happened in two stage- first stage is called meiotic first division and second is called meiotic second division. First stage of division is also called reduction division and second part is same as mitosis division.
Places for mitosis- cell are divided by the process of mitosis in bacteria, protozoa, dinoflagellate, mammals. Beside the mammalian cell, other cell division of mitosis is quite different, as the nuclear membrane remain intact. But in mammalian cell the nuclear membrane
The term mitosis was first coined by the scientist Flemming in 1882. The details were worked out by Strasburger in 1875 and Flemming in 1879. In 1960 Cocktail and Mac Canley explained the biochemical aspect of the process and initially the two process mitosis
Interphase is a stage between two mitotic cycles in an eukaryotic cell, during which various physical and chemical changes for the preparation of cell division takes place.
Definition of cell cycle- Cell cycle is a series of cyclical changes by which a cell passes during its growth and division. Generation time- The time interval between the two successive divisions are called generation time. Different division of cell cycle- Cell cycle
Cell cycle is the entire sequence of events happening from the end of one nuclear division to the beginning of the next. In 1953 Howard and Pele denoted four phases of cell cycle G1, S, G2 and M phases.
Co factors are organic compound, metallic ions, metallic ion clusters that bind with enzymes and influence the enzyme activity. When the co factor is tightly bound to the enzyme ,this is called prosthetic group. If it is loosely bound it is called co factor.
classification and nomenclature of enzymes
Though specific enzymes have specific substrate for their action. Their affinities for that particular substrate can be changed by different influencing factors . Factors that affect enzyme activity are – 1.Enzyme concentration- If the amount of substrate is more than the
In 1931 Michaelis Menton proposed that for catalization of enzyme reactions, the substrate (S) first binds with the enzyme (E) to form a very unstable enzyme substrate (ES) complex. The ES complex then immediately dissociates to liberate the enzyme the enzyme which remains
Enzymes are biological catalysts that are produced from the cell and are associated with the conversion of the substrate to another components called products. Examples are- Reaction of enzymes- E (Enzymes)+ S (substrate)= ES complex= P (products)
Chemical reactions are process where a set of chemical compounds converted to the new set of compound. In this process, the group of substances that involved in the reaction are called reactants and the new compounds that produces are called products. In chemical reactions
Enzymes are biological catalyst which speed up the reaction and it remain unchanged itself after the reaction by lowering the activation energy. History – In 1897 Kunhe described enzyme as – “biocatalyst are proteinaceous substances which are capable of cataloguing
Living beings are those which shows following characteristics – growth, development, reproduction, different physiological activities, adaptation, death, survival etc. Characteristics of living state are - Components of the body- Body of every living beings are made up of