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Definition of transpiration - Transpiration is the physiological activity in which water molecules carried from the root to the pores of the leaves present in the downward side of the leaf and evaporates from the plant body. Actually this is the process of evaporation of
Continue reading "Transpiration | Characteristics Features | Different Types | Factors"
Transport of water and minerals- The transport of the substances from one part of the plant to another is called conduction. Roots absorbed water and minerals from the soil those are need to be transported to the different parts of the plants body.
Continue reading "Water Movement Up a Plant | Absorption of Water by Roots"
As we all know that water is very essential elements for the plants because it acts as an essential raw material for the photosynthesis of plants for their growth and survival of plants need water to carry out many life processes, physiological processes
Continue reading "How do Plant Absorb Water? | Absorption of Water by Roots | Osmosis"
This is a physical phenomenon of net flow of solvent molecules from a solution of lower concentration to a solution of higher concentration through a semi permeable membrane (a membrane which allows only the solvent molecules and not the solute molecules
Continue reading "Plant-Water Relations | Water potential|Osmosis|Plasmolysis|Imbibition"
Transport or conduction of the water means transport of substances from one part of plant to the another means transport of water and dissolved minerals from the roots to the leaves via xylem. Roots the underground parts of the plants which is positive geotrophic in nature.
Continue reading "Explain Long Distance Transport of Water | Transport in Plants | Xylem"
There are different mechanisms for the transport like diffusion, Osmosis, active transport, facilitated diffusion etc. Mainly we can divide the entire transport process into two those are- active transport and passive transport. Passive transport includes diffusion osmosis
Continue reading "Means of Transport | Bulk Transport | Passive transport | Diffusion"
Meiosis is a complex cell division process in which the diploid number of chromosome of the mother cell is reduced to haploid number of chromosomes in the four daughter cell.
Continue reading "Meiosis Cell Division | Biology | Importance for Meiosis | Cytokinesis"
Meiosis is a complex type of cell division where a number of chromosome of the mother cell is reduced to the haploid number of chromosome in daughter cell.
Continue reading "Meiosis II | Location | Interkinesis II | Prophase II | Metaphase II"
First meiotic division- Process of meiosis is start with the interphase like that of mitosis and DNA duplication takes place at the premeiotic “S” phase. The first meiotic division consists of prophase 1, pro metaphase1, metaphase 1, anaphase 1, telophase 1.
Continue reading "Meiosis I |Telophase I | Metaphases I | Definition of Leptotene "
Meiosis cell division is happened in two stage- first stage is called meiotic first division and second is called meiotic second division. First stage of division is also called reduction division and second part is same as mitosis division.
Continue reading "Significance of Meiosis Cell Division | Evolution | Adaptation | Cell"
Places for mitosis- cell are divided by the process of mitosis in bacteria, protozoa, dinoflagellate, mammals. Beside the mammalian cell, other cell division of mitosis is quite different, as the nuclear membrane remain intact. But in mammalian cell the nuclear membrane
Continue reading "Significance of Mitosis Cell Division | Hereditary Conservation "
The term mitosis was first coined by the scientist Flemming in 1882. The details were worked out by Strasburger in 1875 and Flemming in 1879. In 1960 Cocktail and Mac Canley explained the biochemical aspect of the process and initially the two process mitosis
Continue reading "Explain about M Phase | Definition and Types of Mitosis Process"
Interphase is a stage between two mitotic cycles in an eukaryotic cell, during which various physical and chemical changes for the preparation of cell division takes place.
Continue reading "Explain about Interphase | Definition| Post mitotic Gap Phase |S-Phase"
Definition of cell cycle- Cell cycle is a series of cyclical changes by which a cell passes during its growth and division. Generation time- The time interval between the two successive divisions are called generation time. Different division of cell cycle- Cell cycle
Continue reading "Phases of Cell Cycle | Definition | Interphase | M Phase | Mitosis"
Cell cycle is the entire sequence of events happening from the end of one nuclear division to the beginning of the next. In 1953 Howard and Pele denoted four phases of cell cycle G1, S, G2 and M phases.
Continue reading "Explain about Cell Cycle | Definition | Different Phases|Cell Division"
Co factors are organic compound, metallic ions, metallic ion clusters that bind with enzymes and influence the enzyme activity. When the co factor is tightly bound to the enzyme ,this is called prosthetic group. If it is loosely bound it is called co factor.
Continue reading "Explain about Cofactors | Definition, Types & Importance of Cofactors"
classification and nomenclature of enzymes
Continue reading "Classification and Nomenclature of Enzymes | Types of Enzymes |Diagram"
Though specific enzymes have specific substrate for their action. Their affinities for that particular substrate can be changed by different influencing factors . Factors that affect enzyme activity are – 1.Enzyme concentration- If the amount of substrate is more than the
Continue reading "Factors Affecting Enzyme Activity |Substrate Concentration|Temperature"
In 1931 Michaelis Menton proposed that for catalization of enzyme reactions, the substrate (S) first binds with the enzyme (E) to form a very unstable enzyme substrate (ES) complex. The ES complex then immediately dissociates to liberate the enzyme the enzyme which remains
Continue reading "Nature of Enzyme Action | Chemical Reactions | Mechanism of Enzyme"
Enzymes are biological catalysts that are produced from the cell and are associated with the conversion of the substrate to another components called products. Examples are- Reaction of enzymes- E (Enzymes)+ S (substrate)= ES complex= P (products)
Continue reading "How do Enzyme Bring about Such High Rates of Chemical Conversion?"
Chemical reactions are process where a set of chemical compounds converted to the new set of compound. In this process, the group of substances that involved in the reaction are called reactants and the new compounds that produces are called products. In chemical reactions
Continue reading "Explain Chemical Reaction | Definition | Types of Chemical Reaction"
Enzymes are biological catalyst which speed up the reaction and it remain unchanged itself after the reaction by lowering the activation energy. History – In 1897 Kunhe described enzyme as – “biocatalyst are proteinaceous substances which are capable of cataloguing
Continue reading "Explain about Enzymes | Definition | Types & Characteristics of Enzyme"
Living beings are those which shows following characteristics – growth, development, reproduction, different physiological activities, adaptation, death, survival etc. Characteristics of living state are - Components of the body- Body of every living beings are made up of
Continue reading "The Living State | Characteristics of Living State | Metabolism"
Polysaccharides are huge carbohydrate molecules which is made up of multiple number of monosaccharide with the help of glycosidic bond. They can be branched or unbranched. Examples of polysaccharides glycogen, starch etc.
Continue reading "Polysaccharides | Definition, Types and Functions of Polysaccharides"
Definition of nucleic acid- It is a biomolecules present in almost all living beings, able replicate itself and is the major components of chromosome that carries genetic information. This are made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and phosphorus.
Continue reading "Nucleic Acid | Definition | Types of Nucleic Acid | DNA | RNA|Diagrams"
Proteins are one of the major components of food , associated with cellular structure and different physiological activities . Components of protein- Proteins are made up of amino acids. Each amino acids contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen. But sometimes other
Continue reading "Explain about the Structure of Proteins | Definition | Components"
Definition of monomer- this are molecules of low molecular weight which are combined with same type of molecules or different types of molecules to form polymer due to formation of different types of bonds. Examples of monomers are glucose, fructose, nucleotides, amino acids
Continue reading "Nature of the Bond Linking Monomers in Polymers | Definition | Types"
Metabolism- This is the sum total of all the chemical reactions occur in living beings in an olderly fashion. Metabolism is made up of anabolism and catabolism. Anabolism- Anabolism is the sum total of those reaction which build up complex substances from simpler ones.
Continue reading "Dynamic State of Body Constituents | Catabolic Process | Anabolism"
Definition of metabolism- metabolism is the process by which chemical energy is required to maintain the life of living organisms. Importance of metabolism- Metabolism have three major functions. Such as- 1.Metabolism is associated with breakdown of food or fuel to
Continue reading "Metabolic Basis for Living | Importance of Metabolism | Formation "
Large molecules of organic substances which 8s made up of hydrogen, carbon, oxygen, nitrogen and essential for the cellular structure, metabolism and development are called proteins.
Continue reading "Explain about Protein|Definition, Structure, Shape & Source of Protein"
Biomacromolecules are molecules that has molecular weight of more than 1000 Dalton and are found in the acid soluble pool of the chemical analysis of living tissue. These are large sized complex molecules which are of high molecular weight which are commonly formed
Continue reading "Biomacromolecules | Definition | Polysaccharides|Proteins|Amino Acids "
The term metabolites mean the end product which is produced due to metabolism of different products. These are generally referred to as the small
Continue reading "Explain Primary and Secondary Metabolites | Definition|Functions|Types"
Chemical composition of the substances can be determined according to the two types. One is qualitative and the other is quantitative. Qualitative analysis - This is a type of chemical analysis which is execute to identify the components of the mixture.
Continue reading "How to Analyse Chemical Composition? | Quantitative Analysis | X ray"
All molecules of the living organisms or chemicals of living organisms which are functional within them are known as biomolecules. It is associated with almost 1000 types of chemical reaction in animal cell. Different types of chemicals present in the cells are called
Continue reading "Explain about Biomolecules | Definition | Macromolecules | Animal Cell"
Secondary growth is observed in vascular cambium and phellogen of dicot roots. It is seen that vascular cambium can be formed secondarily from conjunctive parenchyma and part of pericycle just lying opposite to the protoxylem points.
Continue reading "Secondary Growth of Roots | Cork Cambium or Phellogen | Primary Xylem"
This in 1954 first was the first to observed microbodies. Microbodies are spherical or oval in shape with the diameter of 0.2 to 1.5 micrometer. It has outer covering with lipid and lipoprotein membrane. It contains different enzymes for catalase but do not contain any
Continue reading "Explain Microbodies | Definition | Glyoxisomes|Glycosome|Hydrogenosome"
Definition of Centrosome - Centrosomeis a more or less spherical mass of dense cytoplasm situated close to the nucleus and contains a pair of cylindrical bodies which are concerned with spindle formation during cell division. In 1888 Boveri first discovered these organelles
Continue reading "Centrosome and Centrioles | Distribution of the Centrosome | Structure"
Robert Brown in 1831 first discovered a double membrane covered protoplasmic body that contains hereditary information. A cell usually contains a single nucleus (uninucleate, monokaryote).
Continue reading "Explain about Nucleus | Nuclear Envelope | Nucleoplasm |Nuclear matrix"
Definition – Cilia and flagella are hair like micro tubular organelles projecting from the cell surface into the extra cellular medium and are concerned with cell motility.
Continue reading "Cilia and Flagella | Definition | Location | Origin |Types of Flagella"
Cytoskeletal structures are fibrous or fine tubular structures that consists of supportive structure of cell. The term cytoskeletal is coined by Koltzoff in 1928.
Continue reading "Cytoskeletal Structure | Functions and Types of Cytoskeleton Structure"
Ribosomes are small ,granular, non- membranous structure which is mafe up of RNA and protein and concerned with protein synthesis. In 1943 presence of ribosomes are first observed by Claude and later in 1955 Palade described a detailed description of it by define the name.
Continue reading "Explain about Ribosomes | Distribution and Origin of Ribosomes"
Plastids are semi-autonomous cell organelles which are surrounded by double membrane envelope, take part in storage and synthesis of organic compounds which occurred in some plant and protistans.Plastidome consists of all the whole plastids complex of cell.
Continue reading "Define the Plastids | Structure of Plastids | Types of Plastids"
The term mitochondria can be broken into mito and chondrion. The term “mito “ means fibril and” chondrion “means granule. Definition of mitochondria - The rod like filamentous, spherical or oval, double membrane bound cytoplasmic organelles of eukaryotic cells ,which are
Continue reading "Explain about Mitochondria | Functions of Mitochondria | Distribution"
Endoplasmic reticulum-It is discovered by Porter et al and Thompson in 1945. The name was given by Porter in 1953.It is a system of membrane lines channels found in all eukaryotic cells except mature erythrocytes.
Continue reading "Endomembrane System | Endoplasmic Reticulum | Golgi Apparatus"
Definition of cell wall- The thick and rigid , nonliving covering present just outside the plasma membrane of plant cells is called cell wall. It is discovered by Robert Hooke in 1665 while observing cell in the section of cork.
Continue reading "Cell Wall | Definition of Cell Wall |Middle Lamella|Primary, Secondary"
Definition - Cell membrane is the thin, elastic and semipermeable living membrane that surrounds the protoplasm of a cell is called cell membrane o plasma membrane or plasma lemma.
Continue reading "Explain about Cell Membrane | Structure of the Cell Membrane"
Definition of eukaryotic cell- It is a type of cell which contains well defined nucleus, membrane bound organelles. Examples of eukaryotic cell- Eukaryotic cells are present in all higher plants and animals.
Continue reading "Explanation of Eukaryotic Cell | Definition | Type of Cell Organelles"
Cell envelope is generally made up of three things in case of prokaryotic cells. These three things are- 1. Glycocalyx-It is located as an external covering around the cell membrane of some animal cell which is made up of glycoproteins -type of mucopolysacharides
Continue reading "Cell Envelop and its Modification | Prokaryotic Cells | Explain |First"
Definition of ribosome- Ribosome is the organelles which is associated with protein synthesis. It is made up of two subunits. The larger one is spherical in shape and the smaller one is oval in shape. Ribosomes are attached with the endoplasmic reticulum and formed rough
Continue reading "Ribosomes and Inclusion Bodies | Definition | Stored Food | Pigments"
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