First Learn Blog

This page will let you know our latest added and the updated pages to my website. Visiting this page will update you with what we have added recently.

Sep 13, 2023

Factors Affecting Photosynthesis |Hydrolysis of Water|Sources of Water

Factors Affecting Photosynthesis

Process of photosynthesis- Photosynthesis is the only process by which energy from the sun called solar energy is trapped inside the body of living beings specifically green plants. It contains chlorophyll which is the green pigment and is able to trap sunlight

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Sep 10, 2023

Photorespiration | Definition | Location of Photo Respiration |

Schematic View of Photosynthesis and Photorespiration

Photo respiration was first described by the Dicker and Tio in 1959. This photorespiration is also known as C2 cycle or oxidative photosynthetic carbon cycle. This is the process that are observed in some higher plants where Rubisco oxygenates RuBp that causes energy

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Aug 16, 2023

The C4 Pathway | Kranz Anatomy | CAM Plants |Structure of Chloroplasts

Kranz Anatomy

C4 plants are those plants where carbon dioxide are circulated into four carbon compound (sugar) before entering the Calvin cycle. There are many C4 plants that we take in our diet ,they are – maize, pineapple, sugarcane etc.

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Aug 10, 2023

The Calvin Cycle | Mechanism of C3 Cycle | What is Solarization?

The Calvin Cycle

The dark reaction, primary involves assimilation of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to organic carbon of the plant body in the form of organic compounds like glucose this thing was first denoted by Blackmans in 1905 and hence it is called black man’s reaction later in

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Aug 10, 2023

Primary Acceptor of CO2 | Mechanism of C3 Cycle |Carboxylation of RuDP

Carbon Fixation

The increase in carbon dioxide concentration in the environment may increase photosynthesis by up to a certain limit is 1% and higher concentration of carbon dioxide is inhibitory for photosynthetic reaction. At the point where the concentration of carbon dioxide and that

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Aug 08, 2023

ATP and NADPH used in Photosynthesis | Production of ATP and ADP

Stages of Photosynthesis

ATP and ADP are energy molecules Which produced during light reaction and that is utilised in the dark reaction bye release of energy. Production of ATP and ADP during light reaction Uses of ATP and NADPH- ATP and NADPH ( Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) are have

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Jul 31, 2023

Chemiosmotic Hypothesis | Movement of Ions | Chemiosmosis in Plants

ATP Synthase in Chemiosmosis

Chemiosmotic theory- Piter D. Mitchell proposed the chemiosmotic hypothesis in 1961 and this theory suggest essentiality that most adenosine triphosphate phosphate (ATP) cells comes from the electrochemical gradient across the inner membrane of mitochondriaby using energy

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Jul 28, 2023

Cyclic and Noncyclic Photo-phosphorylation |Pigment System|Limitations

Cyclic Photophosphorylation

Photosynthesis is called Redox reaction because carbon dioxide is reduced to glucose and water is oxidised to oxygen. It is a weakly fluorescent pigment system consisting of chlorophyll B ,chlorophyll A of 670, chlorophyll A 680 chlorophyll A 695 and very small amount of

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Jul 27, 2023

Explain about Splitting of Water | Photolysis of Water |Photosynthesis

Photolysis

Water is very essential and important component of photosynthesis which helps in the reduction of carbon dioxide to glucose. Theterrestrial plants that absorb the soil water with the help of their root hairs by the process of osmosis and active transport, the aquatic plants

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Jul 26, 2023

The Electron Transport | ATP Molecules | Ultimate Electron Acceptors

The Electron Transport

It is called ETC. Electron transfer means the process where one electron relocate from one atom to the other atom. Definition of electron transport chain - The biological process where a chains of redox reaction take place as electrons are transferred from the donner to the

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Jul 24, 2023

Light Reaction on the Photochemical Phase | Different Events | Pigment

Calvin Cycle

Light reaction is also known as photochemical phase because for this phase light is essential for green plants get from sunlight. This phase is observed in the granum of chloroplast and is essential inductive phase which involve absorption of solar energy, photosynthetic

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Jul 22, 2023

How many Pigments are Involved in Photosynthesis? | Types of Pigments

Photosynthetic Pigments

Pigments are the molecules that absorbs light of specific wavelengths release the other means absorbs energy and provide that for transformation of electrons into next level.

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Jul 13, 2023

Where does Photosynthesis Takes Place?

Structure of Chloroplast

Photosynthesis is a physiological process in which green plants make their own food in presence of sunlight, water collected by the roots, carbon dioxide from the air and produces oxygen which is released into the air.

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Jul 12, 2023

Metabolism of Nitrogen | Nitrogen Cycle | Biological Nitrogen Fixation

Nitrogen Cycle

Metabolism of Nitrogen nitrogen cycle biological nitrogen fixation- We all know that our atmosphere has 78% of the Nitrogen gas which is one of the essential constituent of all living organisms. Nitrogen cycle is a type of biogeochemical cycle, this term was first coined by

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Jul 11, 2023

Soil as Reservoir of Essential Elements | Factors Present in the Soil

Essential Elements of Soil

It is accepted that soil is very much essential for the plants to grow. Soil is made up of three layers. Among the three layers topsoil is the most enriched layer of the soil. In this layer plants grow. This layer contains all the critical elements

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Jul 07, 2023

Translocation of Solutes | Structure of Phloem | Phloem Tissue | Plant

Phloem Vessel

Translocation is a process by which transport of food materials from the source or point of manufacture two different growing regions of the plant take place. As we all know that water is transported by the roots and the food produced in the leaves are must be transported

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Jul 06, 2023

Mechanism of Absorption of Elements | Passive Water Absorption

Water Travels from Root Hairs to Xylem

Roots absorb water in the region where root hairs are present. Root hairs are tubular in structure that outgrowth of a root region which passes into soil interfaces for absorption water from the soil. Root hairs developed in the region of the root maturation and this area is

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Jul 04, 2023

Deficiency Symptoms of Essential Elements | Deficiency in Plants

Deficiency Chart of Micronutrients

Deficiency in plants can be caused due to following deficiency of the elements- Nitrogen- As nitrogen is the major constituent of amino acids, proteins, hormones, enzymes, coenzymes, chlorophyll, vitamin, cytochromes etc thus chlorosis appear first in older leaves and

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Jul 04, 2023

Toxicity of Micronutrients |Manganese |Phosphorous |Potassium Toxicity

Micronutrients consists of those element which are required very less in quantity for the normal growth and development of the plants. Different types of micronutrients in plants are- Different types of micronutrients of the plants are – zinc, boron, chlorine, manganese

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Jun 30, 2023

Role of Macronutrients and Micronutrients | Nutrition of Plants |Plant

Nitrogen Deficiency Leaf

Terrestrial plants absorb the mineral requirements from the soil by the region of their roots that having young cells. The process of absorption of minerals can be passive or active. In passive transport of energy is not required by the transport system but in the active

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Jun 28, 2023

Criteria for Essentiality | Plant nutrition | Beneficial Materials

Plants that uses different mineral and water for their nutrition is called plant nutrition. Weathering of rock mixing of dead bodies of plants and animals with the soil make the soil fertile and there is addition of different elements within the soil from the body of the

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Jun 27, 2023

Methods to Study the Mineral Requirements of Plants |Mineral Transport

Hydroponics

Elements that require by the plants are called essential minerals. Functions of minerals- functions of minerals are- *Constituent of organic molecules that is carbon hydrogen oxygen nitrogen phosphorus Sulphur Ion magnesium calcium

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Jun 23, 2023

The Pressure Flow or Mass Flow Hypothesis | Mechanism |Turgor Pressure

The Pressure Flow or Mass Flow Hypothesis

It is the hypothesis by which transport of sap by phloem can be best described. This hypothesis was given by Ernst Munch in 1930 who was an German plant physiologist. According to this hypothesis a high concentration of organic substances like sugar, inside the phloem

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Jun 05, 2023

Phloem Transport – Flow from Source to Sink | Long Distance Transport

Phloem Transport

Transport of phloem saps from the sugar source to the sugar sink takes place. For the plants specifically angiosperms are observed to having pressure flow hypothesis for their phloem translocation.

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May 30, 2023

Uptake of Transport Nutrients | Definition of Osmosis | Absorption

Xylem and Phloem Vessels

The transport of substances from one part of the plant to the another part is called conduction. In this process water is transported to the Green Leaves for photosynthesis, takes place and the food produced in the leaves are transported to different parts of the plant.

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May 29, 2023

Transpiration and Photosynthesis are Compromise |Transpiration Process

Transpiration and Photosynthesis are Compromise

Photosynthesis is a biochemical process by which green plants make their own food in presence of water, carbon dioxide, sunlight is called photosynthesis. This is the process where chemical energy is stored in the glucose and later it is released as energy for performing

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Apr 18, 2023

Transpiration | Characteristics Features | Different Types | Factors

Transpiration

Definition of transpiration - Transpiration is the physiological activity in which water molecules carried from the root to the pores of the leaves present in the downward side of the leaf and evaporates from the plant body. Actually this is the process of evaporation of

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Apr 09, 2023

Water Movement Up a Plant | Absorption of Water by Roots

Pathway of Water Absorbed by Roots

Transport of water and minerals- The transport of the substances from one part of the plant to another is called conduction. Roots absorbed water and minerals from the soil those are need to be transported to the different parts of the plants body.

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Apr 09, 2023

How do Plant Absorb Water? | Absorption of Water by Roots | Osmosis

Xylem Vessels

As we all know that water is very essential elements for the plants because it acts as an essential raw material for the photosynthesis of plants for their growth and survival of plants need water to carry out many life processes, physiological processes

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Feb 13, 2023

Plant-Water Relations | Water potential|Osmosis|Plasmolysis|Imbibition

Osmosis

This is a physical phenomenon of net flow of solvent molecules from a solution of lower concentration to a solution of higher concentration through a semi permeable membrane (a membrane which allows only the solvent molecules and not the solute molecules

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Feb 13, 2023

Explain Long Distance Transport of Water | Transport in Plants | Xylem

Xylem Vessels

Transport or conduction of the water means transport of substances from one part of plant to the another means transport of water and dissolved minerals from the roots to the leaves via xylem. Roots the underground parts of the plants which is positive geotrophic in nature.

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Dec 21, 2022

Means of Transport | Bulk Transport | Passive transport | Diffusion

Active Transport

There are different mechanisms for the transport like diffusion, Osmosis, active transport, facilitated diffusion etc. Mainly we can divide the entire transport process into two those are- active transport and passive transport. Passive transport includes diffusion osmosis

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Dec 17, 2022

Meiosis Cell Division | Biology | Importance for Meiosis | Cytokinesis

Meiosis Cell Division

Meiosis is a complex cell division process in which the diploid number of chromosome of the mother cell is reduced to haploid number of chromosomes in the four daughter cell.

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Dec 16, 2022

Meiosis II | Location | Interkinesis II | Prophase II | Metaphase II

Prophase II

Meiosis is a complex type of cell division where a number of chromosome of the mother cell is reduced to the haploid number of chromosome in daughter cell.

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Nov 18, 2022

Meiosis I |Telophase I | Metaphases I | Definition of Leptotene

Leptotene

First meiotic division- Process of meiosis is start with the interphase like that of mitosis and DNA duplication takes place at the premeiotic “S” phase. The first meiotic division consists of prophase 1, pro metaphase1, metaphase 1, anaphase 1, telophase 1.

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Nov 17, 2022

Significance of Meiosis Cell Division | Evolution | Adaptation | Cell

Meiosis Cell Division

Meiosis cell division is happened in two stage- first stage is called meiotic first division and second is called meiotic second division. First stage of division is also called reduction division and second part is same as mitosis division.

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Nov 08, 2022

Significance of Mitosis Cell Division | Hereditary Conservation

Division of Chromosome

Places for mitosis- cell are divided by the process of mitosis in bacteria, protozoa, dinoflagellate, mammals. Beside the mammalian cell, other cell division of mitosis is quite different, as the nuclear membrane remain intact. But in mammalian cell the nuclear membrane

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Nov 08, 2022

Explain about M Phase | Definition and Types of Mitosis Process

Prophase

The term mitosis was first coined by the scientist Flemming in 1882. The details were worked out by Strasburger in 1875 and Flemming in 1879. In 1960 Cocktail and Mac Canley explained the biochemical aspect of the process and initially the two process mitosis

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Oct 20, 2022

Explain about Interphase | Definition| Post mitotic Gap Phase |S-Phase

Interphase

Interphase is a stage between two mitotic cycles in an eukaryotic cell, during which various physical and chemical changes for the preparation of cell division takes place.

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Aug 25, 2022

Phases of Cell Cycle | Definition | Interphase | M Phase | Mitosis

Different Phases of Cell Cycle

Definition of cell cycle- Cell cycle is a series of cyclical changes by which a cell passes during its growth and division. Generation time- The time interval between the two successive divisions are called generation time. Different division of cell cycle- Cell cycle

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Aug 23, 2022

Explain about Cell Cycle | Definition | Different Phases|Cell Division

Cell Cycle

Cell cycle is the entire sequence of events happening from the end of one nuclear division to the beginning of the next. In 1953 Howard and Pele denoted four phases of cell cycle G1, S, G2 and M phases.

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Aug 23, 2022

Explain about Cofactors | Definition, Types & Importance of Cofactors

Explain about Cofactors

Co factors are organic compound, metallic ions, metallic ion clusters that bind with enzymes and influence the enzyme activity. When the co factor is tightly bound to the enzyme ,this is called prosthetic group. If it is loosely bound it is called co factor.

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Aug 23, 2022

Classification and Nomenclature of Enzymes | Types of Enzymes |Diagram

Mechanism of Enzyme Oxidoreductase

classification and nomenclature of enzymes

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Aug 12, 2022

Factors Affecting Enzyme Activity |Substrate Concentration|Temperature

Substrate Concentration

Though specific enzymes have specific substrate for their action. Their affinities for that particular substrate can be changed by different influencing factors . Factors that affect enzyme activity are – 1.Enzyme concentration- If the amount of substrate is more than the

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Aug 12, 2022

Nature of Enzyme Action | Chemical Reactions | Mechanism of Enzyme

Mode of Enzyme Action

In 1931 Michaelis Menton proposed that for catalization of enzyme reactions, the substrate (S) first binds with the enzyme (E) to form a very unstable enzyme substrate (ES) complex. The ES complex then immediately dissociates to liberate the enzyme the enzyme which remains

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Aug 04, 2022

How do Enzyme Bring about Such High Rates of Chemical Conversion?

Enzyme Reaction

Enzymes are biological catalysts that are produced from the cell and are associated with the conversion of the substrate to another components called products. Examples are- Reaction of enzymes- E (Enzymes)+ S (substrate)= ES complex= P (products)

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Aug 03, 2022

Explain Chemical Reaction | Definition | Types of Chemical Reaction

Chemical Equation

Chemical reactions are process where a set of chemical compounds converted to the new set of compound. In this process, the group of substances that involved in the reaction are called reactants and the new compounds that produces are called products. In chemical reactions

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Jul 25, 2022

Explain about Enzymes | Definition | Types & Characteristics of Enzyme

Allosteric Inhibition

Enzymes are biological catalyst which speed up the reaction and it remain unchanged itself after the reaction by lowering the activation energy. History – In 1897 Kunhe described enzyme as – “biocatalyst are proteinaceous substances which are capable of cataloguing

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Jul 22, 2022

The Living State | Characteristics of Living State | Metabolism

Living beings are those which shows following characteristics – growth, development, reproduction, different physiological activities, adaptation, death, survival etc. Characteristics of living state are - Components of the body- Body of every living beings are made up of

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