Whole numbers are positive integers including zero. The main difference between whole numbers and natural numbers is that natural numbers are also positive integers but does not include zero. Hence we can say that natural numbers means whole numbers whereas, whole numbers does not mean natural numbers.

Example : { 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, ………..}

There are main four types of operation done in whole numbers that is addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. Any negative integer, fraction or decimal is not considered as whole numbers. Whole numbers are often called as counting numbers however, counting numbers does not include zero as zero cannot be counted. So counting numbers along with zero is termed as whole numbers.

The first or the most basic operation of whole numbers is ADDITION.

The steps for addition of whole numbers are as follows:

I. Firstly the numbers are written under ones, tens, hundreds, thousands, ten thousands and so on

II. Then starting from the ones column they are added. If there is any carry over in the ones column then that is adjusted in the tens column. Furthermore, if there is any carry over in the tens column then that is adjusted in the hundreds column and so on.

Examples of addition of 2 digit whole number without carry over:

T              O

5              2

+      2              5

7              7

Here in the ones column 2 + 5 = 7 and in tens column 5 + 2 =7. That gives the answer 77

T        O

7        3

+     1        6

8        9

Here in the ones column 3 + 6 = 9 and in tens column 7 + 1 =8. That gives the answer 89

Examples of addition of 3 digit whole number with carry over:

H        T        O

1        0        3

+               8        9

1         9        2

Here in the ones column 3 + 9 = 12. But we cannot write 12 hence 2 is written in the ones column and 1 is carried over in the tens column. Therefore the subtotal of tens column will be 0 + 8 + 1 (carryover) = 9. In hundreds column only 1.

Examples of addition of 4 digit whole number without carry over:

TH        H        T        O

1        0        2         9

+                2        5         0

1        2        7         9

Here in the ones column 9 + 0= 9. In the tens column 2 + 5= 7 and In hundreds place 0 + 2 = 2 , in thousands place only 1.

Examples of addition of 4 digit whole number with carry over:

TH      H        T        O

3        5        6        9

+      2        5        1        0

6       0        7        9

Here in ones place 9 + 0 is 9 and in tens place 6 + 1 =7 with no carry over in these two places. However, in the hundreds place 5 + 5= 10 there will be a carryover. We cannot write 10 so we will write only 0 and 1 would be carried over in thousands place. Therefore the subtotal of thousands place will be 3 + 2 + 1 (carryover) = 6

TH      H        T        O

4        3        1        5

1        6        5        9

5        9        7        4

Here in the ones place 5 + 9 = 14 so 1 will be carryover in tens place and we will write only 4 in ones place. The subtotal of tens place will be 1 + 5 + 1 (carryover) = 7 with no carryover. In the hundreds place 3 + 6 =9 with no carryover and again in the thousands place 4 + 1 = 5 with no carryover as well.

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