The Present Tense basically indicates all those actions which occurs in the current scenario or state of being.
· However, there are certain cases when a Present Tense may be used to indicate a past or future course of event.
· The Present Tense primarily makes use of the base form of the Verb or for third person singular objects, the base form followed by the suffix “-s”.
· The Present Tense thus denotes that an action is inn present form, as in now. It is used for the purpose of indicating habitual actions, static conditions, general truths and fixed arrangements.
There are four kinds of Present Tense, each with its distinct usage in English grammar.
1. Present Simple:
A. To indicate an everyday occurrence or universal / general truth.
Example: The sun rises in the East.
The Earth rotates around the Sun.
B. To indicate a habitual action.
Example: I go for my morning run every day.
You must brush your teeth every day.
I usually day with my morning tea.
C. To express a future event
that is scheduled to take place, as per itinerary.
Example: The match starts tomorrow at 9 a.am.
The train arrives at the destination on Saturday.
D. To express a proverb or a quote.
Example: Honesty is the best policy.
Beauty lies in the eyes of the beholder.
E. To give instructions or directions:
Example: You go straight to the bank and meet the Branch Manager.
· Positive: I read a book.
· Negative: I do not read a book.
· Interrogative: Do I read a book?
2. Present Continuous Tense
A. This is used to indicate an action that is currently in process.
Example: I am drafting n article.
You are watching a movie.
· Positive: I am reading a book.
· Negative: I am not reading a book.
· Interrogative: Am I reading a book?
3. Present Perfect Tense
A. To indicate activities that have been completed in the recent past. It means that though the activity started in the past, it got completed but recently.
B. It is usually used with the word ‘just’.
Example: The train just left the station.
You have done a splendid job!
I have been living in this part of the city for 10 years.
· Positive: I have read a book.
· Negative: I have not read a book.
· Interrogative: Have I read a book?
4. Present Perfect Continuous Tense
A. This is used to indicate an action that started in the past and is still in process in the present.
B. This is mostly used with the words ‘for’ or ‘since’ to denote the passage of time.
Example: The patient has been undergoing treatment at Jaslok Hospital.
The workers have been building the bridge since last 5 years.
I have been writing a novel for quite some time now.
· Positive: I have been reading a book.
· Negative: I have not been reading a book.
· Interrogative: Have I been reading a book?