Multiplication of Whole Numbers

Whole numbers are positive integers starting from zero and continues till infinity. We have already discussed with addition and subtraction of whole numbers. Now, we are here to discuss another basic operation with whole numbers that is multiplication of whole numbers.

Suppose let’s take an example:

1. 2 × 5 = 10

Again, 2+2+2+2+2 =10

2. 3 × 6 =18

3+3+3+3+3+3 = 18

What can be concluded from this?

Multiplication is nothing but actually repeated addition. When we are dealing with large numbers then repeated addition becoming time consuming, tiring and confusing as well. Hence we opt for multiplication as it becomes much easy than repeated addition.


Here are now few examples of multiplication of whole numbers

1.

                H     T     O

                4     4     5

           ×                2 

                8     9     0 

 

The number in the first row that is 445 is called the multiplicand and 2 is called the multiplier. Now 2 is multiplied each time starting from the right side or ones place by every number. 2 is first multiplied with 5 to get 10. But we cannot write 10 hence we are writing 0 and 1 is carryover. Then again in the tens place 2 is multiplied with 4 to get 8 plus 1 carryover from the ones place so it becomes 9. Lastly 2 is again multiplied with 4 to get 8 and there is no carryover. The answer obtained that is 890 is called the product.


2.

                         TH        H        T        O

                                     5        0        3

                ×                                      7                             

                          3         5        2        1 

 

Here 503 is the multiplicand and 7 is the multiplier and 3521 is the product. In the same way 7 is multiplied with 3 to get 21. We cannot write 21 so we are writing 1 and 2 carryover. Then again 7 is multiplied with 0 to get 0 plus 2 carryover. Lastly 7 is multiplied with 5 to get 35 and no carryover.

 

3.

                  TTH        TH        H        T        O

                                 1         5        4         3

                                ×                   2         3                            

                                4         6         2         9

                   3           0         8          6        0  

                   3           5         4          8        9  

 

1543 is the multiplicand and 23 is the multiplier. Now in the same way as discussed above 1543 is the multiplicand is multiplied with the multiplier 3 to get 4269. Again, 1543 the multiplicand is multiplied with the multiplier 2 to get 3086. Lastly both 4629 and 30860 is added to get the final product 35489

Multiplication of Whole Numbers

 4.

                TTH     TH     H     T      O

                             6      2     4      3

           ×                       1      5     3  

                    1       8      7      2     9

            3      1       2      1      5     0

            6      2       4      3      0     0 

            9      5       5      1      7      9 

 

6243 is the multiplicand and 153 is the multiplier. Now in the same way as discussed above 6243 is the multiplicand is multiplied with the multiplier 3 to get 18729. Again, 6243 the multiplicand is multiplied with the multiplier 5 to get 31215. 6243 is multiplied with 1 to get 6243. Lastly all the three are added to get 955179.




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