Taxonomic Hierarchy Category

Taxonomical aids are those that help us for proper identification, study, nomenclature of plants and animals.

Importance of taxonomical aids are:

Our universe is made up of both non-living and living organism. There are millions and millions of unicellular and multicellular organism which should be categorized. Unless it will be difficult to find the relationship between them and study them and also study the food chain, web.

Taxonomical aids are following:


In every school, college, academic institution have herbarium collection centre. Herbarium collection sheet is arranged in proper order of classification. It is a type of collection or preservation of different plants or parts of the plant which are endangered, extinct or tends to get extinct. Different cities like – London, Paris, Lucknow (India) have their own herbarium collection. It helps us to get the idea of the specific species that is rare or might have extinct.

Herbarium can be made by taking herbarium sheet of  specific dimension- visit an area for collection of plants, cutting them with knife, then dried up the part of the plant or entire plant by keep it under pressing for few days until the chlorophyll lost. Then stick it on the herbarium sheet for preservation.

Types of herbarium can be divided into:

1. Holotype: Sheet contains first description of plants.

2. Lectotype: If the holotype is lost then second herbarium sheet is prepared from original plant.

3. Neotype: If holotype and original lost then herbarium sheet prepared from other plant of same species.

4. Syntype: If holotype and original lost then herbarium sheet is prepared from many species.

5. Isotype: Duplicate of holotype, prepared in presence of holotype.

6. Paratype: Additional herbarium sheet is used in the first description of plant called para type.

Botanical Garden

It is a vast area for breeding and cultivation of local floras and maintaining the endangered species for scientific, educational, and research purpose. Indian botanical garden is the largest garden of Asia situated at Shibpur, Howrah. Hanging garden of Babylon was the first this type of garden.

Importance of this type of garden are:

Maintaining local floras and fauna.

Help in preservation of different endangered species.

Supplied seeds for different scientific and educational purposes.

Attract tourist.

Help in studying of different plants.


It is an institution where specimens of different things like art, natural, applied science and general things are kept and maintained by specialized worker for research, educational and knowledge purpose. 

Generally we have different types of museums:

Art museums for preservation of different artistic work and crafts.

Natural museums for preservation of different endangered plant and animal’s body.

Collection of different stones, pebbles, metals etc.

Applied science museum.

Importance of museum:

1. Acquisition of materials as every new objects were discovered is kept in the museum. 

2. Recording all the specimen with time and maintained the thing.

3. Exhibition of different things and endangered species modeled. 

4. Preservation of different materials.

5. Education purpose.

6. Research purpose.

Zoological Garden:

It is a huge area where living animals are kept under natural conditions within fences and encourage breeding. Zoological Garden of Alipore is a renowned zoo.

Significance of zoo:

Conservation of wild animals.

Entertainment purposes

Educational purposes

Research purpose

* Questions

1. What is the dimension of herbarium sheet?

Answer: 11.5” ×12.6”

2. Where the biggest herbarium collection centre is situated?

Answer: London .

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