We will discuss here to develop a general idea about the functions of root.
We know roots perform many important functions, which are mentioned below:
(i) Absorption: Plants absorb water and nutrient-salts from soil by the roots. These are essential for synthesis of food.
(ii) Anchorage: The root system tightly holds soil particles together and upholds a plant on the ground.
(iii) Storage: Roots of some plants store food for future use. For example roots of beet, carrot, radish, sweet-potato become swollen to store food.
Carrot Radish Beef Sweet-potato
Assimilation: Some roots are green and remain exposed to sunlight. These are
known as assimilatory roots. These roots can perform photosynthesis to
synthesize food within it. For example, water-chestnut have this type of root.
(v) Support: Some aerial roots support plants to bear the weight of the branches. For example, prop roots of banyan tree and stilt root of screw-pine gives support.
(vi) Climbing: The roots arising from the nodes of betel and money-plant help the plants in climbing.
(vii) Reproduction: Storage roots of sweet-potato have buds. From these buds grow the daughter plants.