Stem and its Functions

In plants life how shoot or stem and its functions are the important part of a plant.


The part of the plant above the soil is known as the shoot. The shoot of a plant bears different parts like the stem, its branches, leaves, buds, flowers and fruits.


This part of the plant grows above the ground. The stem is the main part of the shoot that supports the plant. It bears branches, leaves, buds, flowers and fruits. It also helps in sending water and minerals to the leaves.

Some plants have soft stems while others have hard stems.

Plants like the banana have soft and thick stems. Some plants like the money plant have very weak, soft and thin stems. They need support to grow upwards. These plants are called creepers. Creepers like sweet pea and money plant need support.

Some plants like the mango, banyan, neem, peepal, etc. have very strong and thick stems. This part of the tree is called a trunk. The stem of such plant makes plant to stand upright. The stem carries water and mineral salts absorbed by the root and send it to the leaves. Leaves prepare the food for the plant and send it to its different parts through the stem.

Let us compare a mango sapling with a full grown mango tree. The stem of a young plant or a sapling is green. As it grows into a tree, the stem turn brown and becomes hard.

The stems of some plants like potato, ginger, onion, sugarcane, etc., store food in them. Some stems like potato and suran grow below the ground.

Functions of the stem:

(i) The stem supports the upper parts of a plant.

(ii) It carries water and minerals from the roots to the other parts of the plant.

(iii) It carries food made in the leaves to other parts of the plant.

(iv) Some stems like sugar cane, potato and ginger store food. These stems can be eaten.

Now, we know how stem and its functions are the basic part of a plant.

Parts of a Plant

Roots and its Functions

Stem and its Functions

Leaf and its Function


Flowers, Fruits and Seeds

Third Grade

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